The Military Phonetic Alphabet | A Clear and Concise Guide

This is an updated article on the Military Phonetic Alphabet. Our first article was several years ago, and we will continue to update this article as the way we use the phonetic alphabet evolves.

When it comes to disasters and emergencies, communication can be key to survival. One miscommunication, misunderstood word, or misspoken letter can cause the situation to spiral out of control. Words and letters that sound the same can easily be mixed up in loud, chaotic, or stressful situations. We have all been frustrated trying to talk in a loud environment- just imagine this frustration if you know that life is on the line. A single misunderstanding can be life-altering or worse- fatal. Knowing, understanding, and using the military and NATO-adopted phonetic alphabet can prevent these misunderstandings.

The military, along with law enforcement and first responders, use the phonetic alphabet to convey information in loud, chaotic settings or over radio communications. Knowing these can help you stay informed or even add important information to the conversation. The military phonetic alphabet can even be helpful in conveying everyday information- just so you don’t have to repeat yourself. We will first run through the military phonetic alphabet below, and then take a look at why those words are used, and when to use them.

Contents (Jump to a Section)

The Military Phonetic Alphabet List

  • Alpha
  • Bravo
  • Charlie
  • Delta
  • Echo
  • Foxtrot
  • Golf
  • Hotel
  • India
  • Juliet
  • Kilo
  • Lima
  • Mike
  • November
  • Oscar
  • Papa
  • Quebec
  • Romeo
  • Sierra
  • Tango
  • Uniform
  • Victor
  • Whiskey
  • X-ray
  • Yankee
  • Zulu

Why These Words Are Used

These words were selected because they are not extremely common words and because they sound unique over a radio. It is hard to confuse these words with each other, even through static and muddled communication. NATO agreed on using these words for these reasons.

During World War II, the US actually used a different phonetic alphabet, called the Able Baker alphabet:

Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike, Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-ray, Yoke, Zebra

You probably recognize many of these as company names from the greatest generation’s war. Some of the words did not change, but most of them did when the US collaborated with Britain on the current phonetic alphabet at the end of the war. They carried this phonetic alphabet over when they established NATO.

Military Phonetic Alphabet Phrases Commonly Used

Several combinations and uses have become common after frequent use over the years. A few of the more notable combos or uses include:

  • Alpha – Delta – Used as FPCON (Force Protection Condition) threat levels. Normal is also a level.
  • Bravo Sierra – Bullshit
  • Bravo Zulu – Well Done
  • Charlie Foxtrot – Cluster F&*$
  • Charlie Mike – Continue the Mission
  • Lima Charlie – Loud and Clear
  • November Golf – No Go
  • Oscar Mike – On the Move
  • Sierra Hotel – Shit Hot (or Hotel Sierra = Hot Shit)
  • Tango Down – Target Down (Enemy threat neutralized).
  • Victor Charlie or Charlie – Viet Cong
  • Zulu Time – Greenwich Mean Time or Universal Time

Some of these even add syllables, which makes them take longer to say. But for those that know the alphabet and these common phrases, they are hard to miss over the radio.

Of course, the military phonetic alphabet is also used for map grid coordinates and land navigation.

How the Phonetic Alphabet Sounds

The words of the military phonetic alphabet are pronounced just as they are spelled. They were carefully picked so that they do not sound close to words that they could be confused with. This quick video shows the pronunciation of each word in the alphabet:

Military Phonetic Numbers

The alphabet wasn’t the only thing that needed the phonetic treatment to be more readily understood. ICAO gives the following pronunciation guide for numbers:

  • Wun
  • Too
  • Tree
  • Fower
  • Fife
  • Siks
  • Seven
  • Ate
  • Niner

The last one is the most drastic pronunciation change. Adding the “r” to the end of “nine” allows it to be less confused with plenty of other words.

Military Phonetic Alphabet Printable PDF

If you are looking to display the military phonetic alphabet next to your radio, or just have it around for reference- we got you. Here you can download a black and white PDF for standard 8.5″ x 11″ paper printing. Open it up in a new tab, and then you can print from your browser prompt or save it to your computer:

The Final Word

The importance of communication has been known since the dawn of man. Hand signals, facial expressions, and spoken language are all tools that have helped us to survive the trials we have faced. Misunderstanding or communicating the wrong message could have disastrous consequences in a survival situation. Let us know in the comments any stories you may have where communication cost you big. Survival is a deadly game of inches, and being informed gives us the edge we need.

Our readers have found these articles helpful as well:

Keep exploring, stay prepared, and be safe.

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The Military Phonetic Alphabet

Rusty Collins

I am an engineer, Air Force veteran, emergency manager, husband, dad, and experienced prepper. I developed emergency and disaster plans around the globe and responded to many attacks and accidents as a HAZMAT technician. I have been exposed to deadly chemical agents, responded to biological incidents, and dealt with natural disasters. Check out my full story here: Rusty's Story

3 thoughts on “The Military Phonetic Alphabet | A Clear and Concise Guide

  • Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Gold?… I wondered when they changed it from Golf to Gold then I see later it must have been a typo…

    • Same here. Just wasted 15 trying figure out when it changed from my boot camp days.

      • Thanks for letting us know. Probably an autocorrect mishap or typo. Golf hasn’t gone anywhere!


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